Social Anxiety: Related Conditions and Therapeutic Approaches

Mental disorders

Key Facts

  • One in eight people around the world suffers from a mental illness
  • Mental disorders are characterized by significant disturbances of thinking, emotion regulation or behaviour
  • Mental disorders can be classified into many different categories.
  • There are effective prevention and treatment options available
  • The majority of people lack access to effective healthcare

Mental disorders are characterize by clinically significant changes in cognition, emotion regulation or behaviour. It is often associate with distress and impairments in key areas of functioning. This disorders come in many forms. Brain illnesses should be explained as mental health conditions. These disorders, psychosocial disability, and (others) mental states that are associated with significant distress. This fact sheet is a guide to mental disorders, as defined by the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision.

In 2019, one in eight people, or 970 million people, lived with a mental illness, the most common being anxiety and depression disorders (1). The COVID-19 pandemic will cause a significant increase in the number of people with anxiety and depression disorders by 2020. In just one year, anxiety disorders and major depression disorders have increased by 26% and 28.8%, respectively. Despite the fact that there are effective treatment and prevention options, many people with mental illnesses do not receive effective care. People with mental disorders are also often subject to stigma, discrimination, and human rights violations.

Anxiety Disorders

In 2019, there were 301 million people with anxiety disorders, including 58,000,000 children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders can be characterize by excessive worry, fear, and other behavioural problems. The symptoms are severe enough to cause significant distress or impairment in function. There are many different types of anxiety disorders. These include social anxiety disorder, which is characterize by excessive anxiety and fear in social situations, generalize anxiety disorder and panic disorder. There are effective psychological treatments, and medication can be use depending on age and severity.

The following are some of the ways to reduce your risk:

In 2019, 280 million people suffered from depression, including 23,000,000 children and adolescents(1). Depression is not the same as mood fluctuations or short-lived responses to everyday challenges. A depressive episode is characterize by a person’s depressed mood (feeling sad or empty) or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities for the majority of the day. This lasts for two weeks. Other symptoms may also be present. These include poor concentration, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, thoughts about suicide or death, disturbed sleep, weight or appetite changes, and a sense of extreme fatigue or lack of energy. Suicide is more likely to occur in people with depression. There are effective treatments for depression, including medication and psychological therapy.

Mood Swing Disorder Bipolar

This disorder was diagnose in 40 million Americans in 2019 (1). Bipolar disorder is characterize by alternating periods of depressive symptoms and manic symptoms. During a depression episode, a person will experience a depressed mood, such as feeling sad, irritable or empty, or lose interest or pleasure in their activities for the majority of the day. Manic symptoms include euphoria, irritability or increased energy. Other symptoms can include increased talkativeness or racing thoughts, an increased need for sleep, distractibility and reckless behaviour. Bipolar disorder increases the risk of suicide. Many effective treatments are available, including psychoeducation, stress reduction, social function strengthening, and medication.

Post-Traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

In conflict-affected areas, PTSD and mental disorders are common. The development of PTSD can occur after exposure to a traumatic event or series. The symptoms of PTSD include:

  1. Experiencing the traumatizing event or events again in the present moment (intrusive memory, flashbacks or nightmares).
  2. Avoiding thoughts or memories of the event or situations, people or activities that remind you of the event.
  3. Persistent feelings of increased threat.

These symptoms last for several weeks and can also cause a significant impairment of functioning. There are effective psychological treatments available.

Schizophrenic Disorder

It is a mental illness that affects 24 million people, or one in every 300 people, worldwide (1). Schizophrenic patients have a lower life expectancy than the general population, by 10-20 years (4). Schizophrenic causes significant impairments in perception and changes in behaviour. Symptoms include hallucinations, persistent delusions or disorganized thinking. They can also manifest as extreme agitation, chaotic behaviour, or severe agitation. It can cause ongoing cognitive difficulties. There are a number of treatment options that can be effective, such as medication, family intervention, psychoeducation and psychosocial rehab.

Eating Disorders

In 2019, eating disorders affected 14 million people, including 3 million children and teenagers (1). Anorexia and bulimia involve excessive food intake and obsession with weight and body shape. The symptoms or behaviours result in significant health risks or damages, considerable distress or significant impairments of functioning. Anorexia often begins in adolescence and early adulthood. It is link to premature death from medical complications or suicide. Bulimia nervosa patients are at an increased risk of substance abuse, suicide, and other health complications. Many effective treatment options exist, such as family-based or cognitive-based therapy.

Disruptive behaviour and dissocial disorders

In 2019, 40 million people, children and adolescents included, suffered from conduct-dissocial disorders (1). Conduct disorder is one of the two disruptive and dissocial disorders. The other disorder is oppositional-defiant disorder. Disruptive behaviour and dissocial disorders can be characterize by persistent problems with behaviour, such as being persistently disobedient or defiant to behaviours that repeatedly violate basic rights for others, or age-appropriate laws, rules or societal norms. Disruptive and dissocial disorders are most often, but not always, diagnosed in childhood. There are many effective psychological treatments, which usually involve parents, teachers and caregivers. They may also include cognitive problem-solving or social skills training.

Neurodevelopmental disorders

Behavioural and cognitive disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders. ? During the development period, there are significant difficulties with the acquisition of certain intellectual, motor or language functions.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder are among the neurodevelopmental disorders. ADHD is characterize by a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity that has a direct negative impact on academic, occupational, or social functioning. Intellectual disorders are characterize by significant limitations of intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which is a reference to everyday difficulties with conceptual, social, and practical skills. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterize by varying degrees of difficulty in social communication and reciprocal social interactions, as well as repetitive, restrict and rigid patterns of behaviour, interests or activities.

There are many effective treatment options, including psychosocial and behavioural interventions, as well as occupational, speech, and other therapies. Medication may be use for certain diagnoses or age groups.

Who is at risk of developing a mental illness?

Mental health can be affect by a variety of factors, including those that affect the individual, their family, their community and even structural elements. People who have been expose to adverse situations, such as poverty, violence and disability, are more at risk. Psychological and biological factors such as emotional abilities and genetics are also among the risk and protective factors. The brain’s structure or function can influence many of the protective and risk factors.

Social support and health systems

The health systems are under-resource and haven’t been able to adequately respond to the mental disorder needs of patients. There is a wide gap between the demand for treatment and the availability of it around the globe. The quality is also often low and only 29% of those with psychosis and one-third of those with depression receive proper mental healthcare.

People with mental disorders need social support soon as well, such as support for maintaining and developing personal, familial, and social relations. Some people with mental illnesses need help in obtaining education, finding employment, housing and participating in meaningful activities.

WHO responds?

WHO’s Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan (2013-2030) recognizes that mental health is essential to achieving good health for everyone. The plan has four major objectives.

  • Strengthening effective leadership and governance in mental health
  • To provide integrated, comprehensive and responsive mental health care and social services in a community-based setting;
  • Implementing strategies to promote and prevent mental health.
  • Strengthening information systems, research, and evidence for mental health.

The Mental Health Gap Action Programme of WHO (mhGAP), which is based on evidence-based guidance, training materials and tools, expands services in countries. This is also especially true in low-resource settings. The Programme focuses on a set of prioritized conditions and directs capacity-building towards non-specialized healthcare providers in an integrated approach to promote mental health at every level of care. This Programme includes the WHO mhGAP 2.0 Intervention Guide, which provides guidance to doctors, nurses and other healthcare workers in non-specialist settings regarding the assessment and management of mental disorders.

By Amelia

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *